Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.DiGiacomo RA, Kremer JM, Shah DM. Fish-oil dietary supplementation in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon: a double-blind, controlled, prospective study. Am J Med. 1989 Feb. 86(2):158-64. [Medline]. Raynaud's phenomenon is a common condition that affects the blood supply to certain parts of the Raynaud's affects your blood circulation. When you're cold, anxious or stressed, your fingers and toes.. If your doctor suspects your condition is caused by another health problem, you might be asked to give a blood sample. This is usually to check for signs of an autoimmune disorder such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
The syndrome of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA Usually PFAPA syndrome resolves during adolescence, but there is increasing evidence that this.. There is some research to suggest that acupuncture can be helpful in reducing pain and inflammation and improving joint stiffness in patients with Raynaud’s phenomenon. One study involving 33 patients with Raynaud’s syndrome found that acupuncture serves as a reasonable treatment alternative. In the study, researchers found that patients undergoing acupuncture experienced a significant decrease in the frequency of Raynaud’s attacks, reduced the number of attacks experienced and decreased the duration of reduced blood flow. (19, 20) Noonan Syndrome - Symptoms, Treatment, Prognosis, Life Expectancy, Pictures and Images. This is a disorder that is caused by a mutation that is genetic and stops the usual..
The condition was first described in 1862 by a French physician named Maurice Raynaud. He explained the “tricolor change” that occurs when the blood vessels narrow and cut off blood supply to the extremities. At first your fingers and toes appear pale or white and then they quickly become bluish because of a lack of oxygen. Then, when the blood rushes back to these areas, they turn red. (1).Coronaviridae Study Group of the International.. Raynaud's phenomenon (also known as Raynaud's syndrome) is a disorder that affects your blood 'Primary Raynaud's phenomenon does not lead to tissue damage, so non-drug treatment is used first.. Raynaud's Syndrome. Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's disease). Raynaud's is an exaggerated vasocontriction of the digital arteries in response to a variety of stimuli
Raynaud syndrome has the same pathophysiology as Raynaud disease but has an identified Treatment-Medications. Calcium channel blockers, such as nifedipine, amlodipine besylate, diltiazem.. Fibrinolysis is a natural reaction that takes place in the body to reduce clotting. Some studies have linked low levels of fibrinolysis with Raynaud’s. Nitrates are used to widen your blood vessels. Some people with Raynaud’s syndrome use nitrate cream or gel formulations on the affected area to reduce the severity of pain during an attack. But research shows that many patients using nitrates for Raynaud’s experience headaches that limit their use. (2)
For those who are active on social media, the hashtag #Raynauds can help you find others who have similar questions and learn about what has helped others cope. There are several Facebook groups available as well. Here are some key points about Raynaud’s disease. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.
Blood vessels narrow and almost completely shut down. Fingers or toes turn from white to blue and, then, as the blood returns, they flush red.Khouri C, Blaise S, Carpentier P, Villier C, Cracowski JL, Roustit M. Drug-induced Raynaud's phenomenon: beyond β-adrenoceptor blockers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016;82(1):6–16. doi:10.1111/bcp.12912 Treatment algorithm for Raynauds syndrome (RS). agents reduced the mean number, duration, and severity of RS attacks, and improved ulcer healing. Hand temperature and blood ow increased with..
Diseases of the arteries: Atherosclerosis, a build-up of plaque in blood vessels, or Buerger’s syndrome, a disorder where blood vessels in the hands and feet become inflamed, can cause Raynaud’s symptoms. Primary pulmonary hypertension has also been linked to the disease. Spinal stenosis is a serious health issue that affects many millions of people in a variety of ways. Without appropriate treatment, spinal stenosis can lead to permanent nerve damage, paralysis and.. There are two types of Raynaud’s that are different because of their root causes and symptoms. Primary Raynaud’s, which is also called Raynaud’s disease, is the more common form of this disorder and it’s known to be less severe. The cause of primary Raynaud’s isn’t known, but the condition is known to be isolated from other health problems and it results in reduced blood flow to the arteries.Secondary Raynaud syndrome accompanies various disorders and conditions, mostly connective tissue disorders (see table Causes of Secondary Raynaud Syndrome).
Schlager O, Gschwandtner ME, Mlekusch I, Herberg K, Frohner T, Schillinger M, et al. Auricular electroacupuncture reduces frequency and severity of Raynaud attacks. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2011 Feb. 123(3-4):112-6. [Medline]. Levien TL. Advances in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2010 Mar 24. 6:167-77. [Medline]. [Full Text].
For most people, Raynaud's syndrome is a nuisance and uncomfortable but does not result in lasting damage. That said, and especially with secondary Raynaud's, complications can occur. These can range from skin ulcers that are slow to heal and scarring. In very severe cases, gangrene can develop and lead to loss of digits. Chotani MA, Flavahan S, Mitra S, Daunt D, Flavahan NA. Silent alpha(2C)-adrenergic receptors enable cold-induced vasoconstriction in cutaneous arteries. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2000 Apr. 278(4):H1075-83. [Medline]. Also known as Raynaud’s syndrome or Raynaud’s phenomenon, Raynaud’s disease affects 5 to 10 percent of Americans, but only 1 in 10 seek treatment. Females are an estimated nine times more likely to be affected than males.Raynaud’s is a rare condition that affects the blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to several parts of the body. People with Raynaud’s experience brief episodes of vasospasm, which causes the blood vessels to narrow and reduce blood flow to your extremities.Therapy with antiplatelet agents has been attempted but has not been proved effective. A randomized controlled trial by Gliddon et al showed no significant difference in attack frequency or severity between the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor quinapril and placebo.  High-quality, well-designed, randomized controlled trials are needed to study the effect of other pharmacotherapy. Anticoagulation is not indicated, except in rare cases of rapidly advancing digital ischemia.
Raynaud's Syndrome, also known as Raynaud's disease or Raynaud's Most of the research about treatment for Raynaud's Syndrome point towards mental health as a major trigger for the disease Bunker CB, Goldsmith PC, Leslie TA, Hayes N, Foreman JC, Dowd PM. Calcitonin gene-related peptide, endothelin-1, the cutaneous microvasculature and Raynaud's phenomenon. Br J Dermatol. 1996 Mar. 134(3):399-406. [Medline]. The feet and hands should be protected from cuts, bruises, and other injuries as far as possible, because the lack of circulation can make it harder for them to heal. Use lotion to prevent the skin from cracking, and make sure you have comfortable, well-fitting shoes.Bosentan (endothelin receptor antagonist) – Orphan drug for treating new digital ulcers in patients with systemic sclerosis
Qiu O, Chan T, Luen M, Cruz JE, Hermes-DeSantis ER. Use of nitroglycerin ointment to treat primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon: a systematic literature review. Rheumatol Int. 2018 Aug 22. [Medline]. Get Raynaud Syndrome essential facts. View Videos or join the Raynaud Syndrome discussion. Add Raynaud Syndrome to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource.. Raynaud's syndrome is a condition that makes a person's fingers or toes temporarily feel cold Raynaud's syndrome usually affects fingers and toes. Less often, episodes can affect the nose, ears.. If your doctor suspects you have Raynaud’s phenomenon, she will ask you some questions about your symptoms and examine your fingers and toes. Your doctor might also use a special magnifying glass called a dermoscope to look at the blood vessels around your fingernails to see if they’re enlarged or misshapen.Note that Raynaud also has a type of gangrene (symmetrical gangrene of the extremities) and a sign (symmetrical, mottled cyanosis of extremities with patches of erythema and excessive sweating) named after him.
When an attack occurs, it's best to go indoors. Apply warm water by running your hands and/or feet (depending on the location of your symptoms) under the faucet, placing them in the bathtub, or soaking them in a bowl. Gently massage your hands or feet. .. U.S. Department of Justice. A Guide To Disability Rights Laws. U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division - Disability Rights Section. Published July 2009.
The pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon is complex but abnormalities of the blood vessel wall, of neural control mechanisms and of intravascular circulating factors are known to interact and contribute.Although the cause of primary Raynaud’s isn’t known, there are some triggers that can lead to an attack. The two most common triggers include:
Secondary Raynaud’s, or Raynaud’s phenomenon or syndrome, results from an underlying medical issue. It is less common and tends to be more serious. If you have secondary Raynaud’s, you might be given medicines to control your blood pressure and relax your blood vessels. If you get sores on your skin as a result, you might be told to apply a cream that contains one of these drugs.
Improvement in Raynaud phenomenon has been reported in patients treated with the SSRIs fluoxetine, sertraline, and escitalopram. However, exacerbation of Raynaud phenomenon has also been reported with SSRI treatment.  Calcium channel blockers are the class of drugs most widely used for treatment of Raynaud syndrome—especially the dihydropyridines (eg, nifedipine, nicardipine), which are the most potent vasodilators.  Nifedipine is the customary first choice. The usual dosage is 30-120 mg of the extended-release formulation taken once daily. Start with the lowest dose and titrate up as tolerated. If adverse effects occur, decrease the dosage or use another agent, such as nicardipine, or a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker such as such as diltiazem. Raynaud's disease — Comprehensive overview covers symptoms, causes, treatment of this circulatory disorder. Natural product effectiveness checker: Raynaud's syndrome Treatment for Raynaud's - 2 - Introduction Raynaud syndrome is an auto-immune disorder in which blood vessels in the digits constrict. It usually strikes females between the ages of eighteen and thirty
Raynaud's Phenomenon is a circulatory condition which affects the fingers and toes. At Treated.com, our prices include online prescription and 24h delivery . Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia often have very similar treatments due to the fact that these two..
Therapy for secondary Raynaud phenomenon must be tailored to the underlying disorder. If the disorder is associated with occupational or toxic exposure, the patient should avoid the inciting environment.Motegi SI, Uehara A, Yamada K, Sekiguchi A, Fujiwara C, Toki S, et al. Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin B Injection for Raynaud's Phenomenon and Digital Ulcers in Patients with Systemic Sclerosis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2017 Jul 6. 97 (7):843-850. [Medline]. [Full Text].
As noted, there are many options, and one category of oral or topical treatment may work better for one person than another. Keeping your eye on the thermostat is also key, as air conditioning is a common trigger for attacks. Cold beverages can also be a problem, but using insulated drinking glasses may help. translation and definition Raynaud's syndrome, English-French Dictionary online. en receptor antagonists in the treatment of vascular diseases, in particular angina, Raynaud's syndrome.. Jeffrey R Lisse, MD, FACP Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Chief, Section of Rheumatology, University of Arizona School of Medicine Jeffrey R Lisse, MD, FACP is a member of the following medical societies: Alpha Omega Alpha, American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine, American College of Rheumatology, American Geriatrics Society, Sigma XiDisclosure: Received consulting fee from Genentech for consulting; Received consulting fee from Centacor for consulting; Received consulting fee from Novartis for review panel membership. Optimal treatment for the underlying condition in secondary Raynaud's syndrome is also critical. With conditions such as hypothyroidism, accurate and optimal treatment of the condition can significantly improve symptoms, as cold extremities are a symptom of undertreated thyroid disease as well. With connective tissue disorders, accurate treatment may reduce the damage to blood vessels that can lead to Raynaud's phenomenon.
Les syndromes de Raynaud iatrogènes doivent être évoqués à l'interrogatoire. Un syndrome de Raynaud unilatéral ou franchement asymétrique, dans la mesure ou il ne se bilatéralise pas.. Burnout Prevention and Treatment
Lifestyle measures are the main way to control the disease for the majority of people and involve avoiding the triggers that can result in an attack. A comprehensive site from an expert & author dealing with medical deception including Munchausen syndrome, Munchausen by proxy, factitious disorder, medical child abuse & malingering Natural treatment for autism, ADHD⁄ADD, dyslexia, dyspraxia, depression and schizophrenia. Gut and Psychology Syndrome™ is the trademark and copyright of Dr. Natasha Campbell-McBride We already have medicines for treating cytokine storm syndromes, the immune response that's Over the past two decades, much has been learned about the diagnosis and treatment of cytokine..
Sign up for our Health Tip of the Day newsletter, and receive daily tips that will help you live your healthiest life.Raynaud syndrome is reversible vasospasm of parts of the hand in response to cold or emotional stress. In addition to calcium channel blockers, other categories of medications that have been effective for at least some people include: Fish oils containing omega-3-fatty acids may be beneficial in some patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon; however, this has not been validated in high-quality studies. A single study found improved tolerance to cold exposure and delayed onset of vasospasm in five of 11 patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon; the dosage used was 12 fish-oil capsules daily.  Antioxidant supplementation has not been shown to produce clinical improvement.  Raynaud Phenomenon (Raynauds Syndrome): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis
A blood test may be done to look for antinuclear antibodies or to measure erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which may indicate autoimmune problems or other inflammatory process. Do you ever experience a numb or tingling feeling in your fingers and toes when it’s really cold outside? For most people this is just an occasional problem that occurs when blood flow to your extremities is reduced. But for some people this is an ongoing problem that leads to uncomfortable and unsightly attacks or episodes.Dowd PM, Martin MF, Cooke ED, et al. Treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon by intravenous infusion of prostacyclin (PGI2). Br J Dermatol. 1982 Jan. 106(1):81-9. [Medline].
The Raynaud syndrome or phenomenon is probably caused by an exaggerated response (α2 adrenergic that triggers vasospasm); however, the mechanism is not yet defined Raynaud phenomenon (RP) is an exaggerated vasoconstrictive response of the digital arteries and arterioles (e.g., in the Occurs more commonly in women. Primary RP (also called Raynaud disease) Mueller M, Gschwandtner ME, Gamper J, Giurgea GA, Charwat-Resl S, Kiener HP, et al. Relation of Nailfold Capillaries and Autoantibodies to Mortality in Patients With Raynaud Phenomenon. Circulation. 2016 Feb 2. 133 (5):509-17. [Medline]. Raynaud's Phenomenon affects blood flow to the fingers and less frequently to the ears, toes, nipples, knees, or nose. Exposure to cold and emotional upset are the triggers Raynaud's phenomenon is a common condition that affects the blood supply to certain parts of the body - usually the fingers and toes. Learn about the symptoms of this conditions and how it's treated
Topical nitroglycerin (1% or 2%) has been found to help if applied locally. [31, 32] Side effects include headache and dizziness. There are two procedures that may be done in the office to evaluate possible Raynaud's syndrome: Share on PinterestPeople with Raynaud’s disease should take care to wrap up before leaving the house on a cold day.There is no cure for Raynaud’s disease, but there are ways to manage symptoms. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. You may hear this disease called by many names. There are two types, primary and secondary Raynaud’s.
Elena Khorosheva Head doctor of sanatoriums.com Khouri C, Blaise S, Carpentier P, et al; Drug-induced Raynaud's phenomenon: beyond beta-blockers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Mar 7. doi: 10.1111/bcp.12912.
Severe cases may lead to digital infarction and gangrene with loss of the tissue of the finger pulp or distal phalanx. The skin may become chronically ischaemic and ulcerate. The digit(s) may lose viability and require amputation in the very worst cases.Jackson CM; The patient with cold hands: understanding Raynaud's disease. JAAPA. 2006 Nov19(11):34-8.
Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD Adjunct Assistant Professor, University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Pharmacy; Editor-in-Chief, Medscape Drug ReferenceDisclosure: Received salary from Medscape for employment. for: Medscape.With strict editorial sourcing guidelines, we only link to academic research institutions, reputable media sites and, when research is available, medically peer-reviewed studies. Note that the numbers in parentheses (1, 2, etc.) are clickable links to these studies.Bunker CB, Terenghi G, Springall DR, Polak JM, Dowd PM. Deficiency of calcitonin gene-related peptide in Raynaud's phenomenon. Lancet. 1990 Dec 22-29. 336(8730):1530-3. [Medline]. Raynaud's syndrome is a type of blood vessel disorder in which where the vessels narrow in cold Raynaud's disease causes the skin to turn white in conditions of cold or stress, as blood flow to the..
Bakst R, Merola JF, Franks AG Jr, Sanchez M. Raynaud's phenomenon: pathogenesis and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 Oct. 59(4):633-53. [Medline]. Wigley F., and N. Flavahan. Raynaud's Phenomenon. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2016. 375(6):556-65. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1507638 Maurice Raynaud discovered this particular syndrome in 1862. Although, Raynaud's Syndrome is not fully understood by doctors, they do know that it causes arteries and blood vessels to overreact in.. In addition to adding these healing foods to your diet, you need to avoid eating foods that weaken your immune system and lead to inflammation. Certain foods can trigger an inflammatory response and make autoimmune symptoms worse. This includes refined carbohydrates, foods made with artificial ingredients and chemicals, alcohol and even caffeine.
The pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Raynaud phenomenon. Pulmonary-renal syndrome in systemic sclerosis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2001;30(6):403-10 benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome (BWS) or intense withdrawal symptoms
John Varga, MD Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, Northwestern University John Varga, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American College of Physicians, American College of Rheumatology, Central Society for Clinical and Translational Research, Society for Investigative DermatologyDisclosure: Nothing to disclose.Exposure to certain substances: Smoking narrows blood vessels and is a possible cause of Raynaud’s. Other chemicals, such as vinyl chloride, may also play a role. Wigley F, Post T (ed). Treatment Of Raynaud Phenomenon: Initial Management. UpToDate. Updated December 2019Patients should check their blood pressure regularly and may want to keep a log of the number and severity of attacks. This may help in evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic management.
Edwards CM, Marshall JM, Pugh M. Lack of habituation of the pattern of cardiovascular response evoked by sound in subjects with primary Raynaud's disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 1998 Sep. 95(3):249-60. [Medline]. If you have Raynaud’s phenomenon, those arteries shrink more than normal, and faster than normal. That can make your fingers and toes feel numb and change color to white or blue. This usually lasts about 15 minutes. When the arteries relax and your body warms back up, your fingers feel tingly and turn red before returning to normal. In Canada, it has been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and cancer pain. The researchers suggested that CBD can provide a new treatment for chronic pain
Coulombe J, Powell J, Hatami A, McCuaig C, Renet S, Marcoux D. Diseases of abnormal sensitivity to cold in children on psychostimulant drugs. J Cutan Med Surg. 2014 Oct. 18(5):1-4. [Medline]. Both primary and secondary Raynaud's syndrome is characterized by the constriction of small blood vessels—usually on both sides of the body (bilateral)—that leads to decreased blood flow to the fingers, and sometimes toes, tip of the nose, earlobe, skin over the kneecap, or nipples. Here are some other ways you can avoid exposure to cold temperatures and help to prevent Raynaud’s attacks:Dr. Josh Axe is on a mission to provide you and your family with the highest quality nutrition tips and healthy recipes in the world...Sign up to get VIP access to his eBooks and valuable weekly health tips for FREE!Maverakis E, Patel F, Kronenberg DG, et al; International consensus criteria for the diagnosis of Raynaud's phenomenon. J Autoimmun. 2014 Feb-Mar48-49:60-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2014.01.020. Epub 2014 Feb 1.
Secondary Raynaud's syndrome tends to have a later onset than the primary condition, and it is commonly diagnosed around the age of 40. It is associated with a number of underlying causes, such as hypothyroidism, and can be more severe. In addition to lifestyle measures, medications and even surgical procedures may be needed to control the symptoms and prevent complications. Thought to affect roughly 5 percent of the population in the United States, Raynaud's more common in colder climates and in those who have a family history of the condition.
Raynaud phenomenon is classified as being either 'primary' or idiopathic, or 'secondary' to another underlying condition (as discussed below) 1-8. The diagnosis of Raynaud disease often refers to a.. The goals of treatment with Raynaud's syndrome are to reduce the frequency and severity of attacks and prevent complications. While lifestyle measures are often sufficient, medical treatment may be needed, especially with secondary Raynaud's.
Injecting certain chemicals that block sympathetic nerve fibers from carrying out vasoconstriction can be effective. Local anesthetics or onabotulinumtoxin type A, or Botox, work well for some people. However, the effect will wear off, and treatment will need repeating. Treatment of Raynaud syndrome includes drugs that dilate the blood vessels and protection of the fingers from cold temperatures. See also acrocyanosis Curtiss P, Cobos G, Lo Sicco K, Franks AG Jr. The Frisbee maneuver: A novel method to abort acute attacks of the Raynaud phenomenon. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2018 Mar. 78 (3):e61. [Medline]. [Full Text].
A diagnosis of Raynaud's syndrome begins with a careful history, including symptoms, triggers, and risk factors for the disease. While at first symptoms may suggest primary Raynaud's syndrome, the diagnostic process can sometimes discover underlying autoimmune conditions (there are more than 80 types) associated with secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Studies of acupuncture have been limited, but have suggested some benefit. Biofeedback and relaxation have shown no difference in frequency or severity of attacks. [35, 36] Scleroderma is a rare, autoimmune condition in which the body produces too much collagen, causing the skin and connective tissue to thicken.
«The treatment of Tourette's Syndrome: multimodal, developmental intervention». J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59 Suppl 1:62-72; discussion 73-74. PMID 9448671 Calcium channel antagonists are used for the treatment of severe Raynaud’s cases. However, research shows that these drugs have adverse effects, including headaches, low blood pressure and dilation of the blood vessels. (16)Hughes M, Snapir A, Wilkinson J, Snapir D, Wigley FM, Herrick AL. Prediction and impact of attacks of Raynaud's phenomenon, as judged by patient perception. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015 Aug. 54 (8):1443-7. [Medline].
The duration of a Raynaud’s attack varies. It can last only a few minutes or linger for many hours. Depending on what triggers your attacks, you may experience them every day, even several times a day, or only once in a while.Topical nitroglycerin ointment applied to the affected area appears to relieve the symptoms by improving blood flow and cardiac output and decreasing blood pressure.Research shows that blood flow is reduced in the fingers of people who regularly smoke. For this reason, smokers with both primary and secondary Raynaud’s syndrome should absolutely quit smoking. If you have tried quitting smoking with no success, try using mind-body practices like acupuncture, spinal manipulation, meditation, reiki, guided imagery and relaxation techniques. (18) Procedures are used less frequently than medications and are most often chosen when nothing else is working for symptoms or when complications such as ulcers occur. These treatments target the sympathetic nerves. Options include:
Raynaud phenomenon (RP) is an exaggerated vascular response to cold temperature or to emotional stress, which is manifested clinically by sharply demarcated col Choi, W., Choi, C., Kim, K. et al. To compare the efficacy and safety of nifedipine sustained release with Ginkgo biloba extract to treat patients with primary Raynaud’s phenomenon in South Korea; Korean Raynaud study (KOARA study). Clin Rheumatol 28, 553 (2009) doi:10.1007/s10067-008-1084-9 Reye's syndrome is a disease manifested by acute encephalopathy in combination with fatty degeneration of the Algorithm for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and the role of Goodfield MJ, Hume A, Rowell NR. The acute effects of cigarette smoking on cutaneous blood flow in smoking and non-smoking subjects with and without Raynaud's phenomenon. Br J Rheumatol. 1990 Apr. 29(2):89-91. [Medline]. They also suggest following up with a physician, especially if sores develop on the extremities. Getting medical help may prevent a worsening of symptoms and serious complications.
Malenfant D, Catton M, Pope JE. The efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a literature review and meta-analysis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009 Jul. 48(7):791-5. [Medline]. Treatment of the secondary form focuses on the underlying disorder. Calcium channel blockers or prazosin is also indicated. Antibiotics, analgesics, and, occasionally, surgical debridement may be necessary for ischemic ulcers. Low-dose aspirin may prevent thrombosis but theoretically may worsen vasospasm via prostaglandin inhibition. IV prostaglandins (alprostadil, epoprostenol, iloprost) appear to be effective and may be an option for patients with ischemic digits. However, these drugs are not widely available, and their role is yet to be defined. Injuries to the hands or feet can increase your risk of complications from Raynaud's, as the healing of cuts, scrapes, and bruises can happen slowly. Wear shoes rather than going barefoot. If you develop dry hands or feet, especially foot cracks, use a good lubricating lotion or ointment to keep your skin moist. Also, avoid too-small rings, snug shoes, tight watches, and anything that constricts circulation to your hands and feet.
Primary Raynaud's is more likely to occur in young women than secondary Raynaud's, with a peak incidence between the ages of 15 and 25. Primary is differentiated from secondary Raynaud's in that there is no underlying medical condition, but a small percentage of people diagnosed with primary Raynaud's will later develop one of the conditions that underlie secondary disease (and the diagnosis will be changed). Your doctor might ask you to avoid some drugs, including over-the-counter cold medicines that contain pseudoephedrine. They can make your symptoms worse by causing your blood vessels to squeeze down. Synonyms: Raynaud phenomenon/disease/syndrome (American forms); primary Raynaud's; secondary Raynaud's This condition was discovered by Maurice Raynaud.. Raynaud's syndrome (also called Raynaud's phenomenon) is a vessel abnormality that causes the small arteries of the arms and legs to shut down, causing the fingers to turn white, then blue, and red Alpha-1 blockers can counter the effect of norepinephrine, which constricts blood vessels. Examples include doxazosin and prazosin.